Table 1

Selected examples of P450 mutants characterized in various organisms

P450 mutation

Organism

Phenotype

Function altered

Reference

(mutant name)


CYP1B1 defect

Human

Congenital glaucoma

Unknown

[38]

CYP17

Human

Sex steroid production

Steroid17a-hydroxylase and 17, 20-lyase

(more than 20 alleles)

affected in both sexes

(some allelic variants)

Only the 17,20-lyase activity

[39]

CYP19 defect

Human

Failure of normal female development

Aromatase (aromatizes ring A of steroids,

[40]

thus producing estrogens)

(overactive)

Male feminization

CYP51

Uncinula necator

Azole fungicide resistance

Eburicol 14 a-demethylase

[41]

(resistant variants with

(powdery mildew)

point mutations)

CYP84A1 defect

A. thaliana

Does not accumulate sinapoyl malate;

Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylase

[42]

(EMS mutant fah1)

alterered lignin composition

CYP90A1 defect

A. thaliana

De-etiolated in dark and dwarfism;

Brassinolide 23-hydroxylase (synthesis of

[43]

(via T-DNA tagging, cpd)

male sterility in the light

steroid hormones)

CYP71C2 defect

Maize

Defect in the production of DIMBOA*,

Indolin-2-one 3-hydroxylase

[6]

(transposon-tagged mutant,

more susceptible to pathogens

Bx3::Mu)

CYP72B1 overactive

A. thaliana

Suppression of long hypocotyl phenotype

Brassinolide 26-hydroxylase (catabolism of

[44]

(activation tagging,

of photoreceptor phyB-4 mutant

brassinosteroids)

bas1-D)

CYP75A1

Petunia

Altered flower color (blue to pink)

Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase

[45]

(breeding mutants;

2 alleles, Hf1 and Hf2)

CYP302A1 defect

Drosophila melanogaster

Embryonic morphogenesis and cuticle

Probable enzyme in the pathway of ecdysteroid

[46]

(EMS mutants)

Deposition impaired

(insect molting hormone) biosynthesis

CYP504

Aspergillus nidulans

Penicillin overproduction

Phenylacetate 2-hydroxylase (a reaction

[47]

(disruption)

competing with antibiotic biosynthesis)


This is not an exhaustive list, but is only meant to provide a glimpse of the functional diversity of P450 enzymes. *2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) is one of the major defense compounds against microbial pathogens and insects accumulated in the gramineae.

Werck-Reichhart and Feyereisen Genome Biology 2000 1:reviews3003.1-reviews3003.9   doi:10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-reviews3003