Figure 1.

Schematic representation of the human hmgr gene and the human HMGRH and P. mevalonii HMGRP proteins. (a) The exon-intron structure of the human hmgr gene, which extends from position 74717172 to position 74741998 of the human genome; positions refer to the Ensembl Transcript ID for the human hmgr gene (ENST00000287936 [22]). The numbers indicate the start and end of each exon and intron and refer to the position in the human genome sequence, omitting the first three digits (747); exons are indicated as filled boxes. Exon 1 is an untranslated region (UTR), as are the last 1,758 nucleotides of exon 20. The exons encoding the membrane-anchor domain, a flexible linker region, and the catalytic domain are indicated below the gene structure. (b) Human HMGR protein (HMGRH) is comprised of three domains: the membrane anchor domain, a linker domain, and a catalytic domain; within the catalytic domain subdomains have been defined. The N domain connects the L domain to the linker domain; the L domain contains an HMG-CoA binding region; and the S domain functions to bind NADP(H). The cis-loop (indicated by an asterisk), a region present only in HMGRH but not HMGRP, connects the HMG-CoA-binding region with the NADPH-binding region. (c) The HMGRP protein does not contain the membrane-anchor domain or the linker domain but has a catalytic domain containing a large domain with an HMG-CoA binding region, and a small, NAD(H)-binding domain. The active site of HMG-CoA reductase is present at the homodimer interface between one monomer that binds the nicotinamide dinucleotide and a second monomer that binds HMG-CoA. The numbers underneath the diagrams in (b,c) denote amino acids (in the single-letter amino-acid code) that are implicated in catalysis; S872 of HMGRH is reversibly phosphorylated. At the extreme carboxyl terminus of each enzyme is a flap domain (approximately 50 amino acids in HMGRP and 25-30 amino acids in HMGRH) that closes over the active site during catalysis; the flap domain is indicated by shading in (b,c).

Friesen and Rodwell Genome Biology 2004 5:248   doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-11-248
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