Figure 1.

An overview of biological natural language processing (BioNLP) and text-mining applications for biology. The major topics are represented by the inner circle of seven approaches, and the corresponding applications are given in the outer layers of boxes. Most of the tools are available online or for download. Some applications could be classified into multiple topics; they are shown here associated with one of their most significant topics. For instance, most of the text-mining applications (that is, the applications that are not simply for article retrieval) have integrated modules for named entity recognition (NER), and selective dissemination of information (SDI) services often use automated Boolean queries for article retrieval. References and URLs for each application, where available, are given in Table 1.

Krallinger and Valencia Genome Biology 2005 6:224   doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-7-224
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