Table 1

Classification and localization of AAA+ proteins

Classification

Cellular localization and evolutionary distribution



Group

Clade

Family

Localization

Distribution*

General function

References


Extended AAA

Classical AAA

FtsH

Chloroplast, mitochondria and bacterial membrane

E/B

Protein unfolding and degradation

[36]

Katanin

Cytosol

E

Microtubule severing and disassembly

[37]

NSF/CDC48

Cytosol

E/A

Membrane fusion/ubiquitin system

[38,39]

Pex1/6

Peroxisome

E

Peroxisome biogenesis

[40]

Bcs1p

Mitochondria

E

Cytochrome bc1 assembly

[41]

PAAA

Cytosol/nucleus

E/A

Proteasome-associated protein unfolding and degradation

[42]

Other

Rubisco activase

Chloroplast

E

Activation of Rubisco

[43]

Rvb

Cytosol and nucleus

E/A

Diverse (for example, DNA recombination/repair, transcription, snoRNP assembly)

[44]

ClpAB-D1

Cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplast

E/A/B

Protease-associated protein unfolding and degradation/protein disaggregation

[18]

SpoVK

Cytosol

B

Unknown (sporulation associated)

[45]

Ycf2

Chloroplast

E

Unknown

[46]

AFG1

Mitochondria

E/B

Unknown

[47]

Viral helicase

Virus

Viruses

DNA recombination and repair

[6]

HEC

Clamp loader

HolB/DnaX

Cytosol

B

DNA replication and repair

[48]

RFC

Nucleus

E/A

DNA replication and repair

[48]

WHIP

Cytosol and nucleus

E/B

DNA replication and repair

[49]

Initiation

DnaA/C

Cytosol

B

DNA replication

[50]

ORC/Cdc6

Cytosol and nucleus

E/A

DNA replication

[51]

Other

RuvB

Cytosol

B

DNA recombination

[52]

IstB

Cytosol

B

DNA transposition

[53]

HolA

Cytosol

B

DNA replication and repair

[48]

PACTT

HCL

HslU/ClpX

Cytosol and mitochondria

E/B

Protease-associated protein unfolding and degradation

[18]

ClpAB-D2/Torsin

Cytosol, mitochondria, ER and chloroplast

E/A/B

Protease-associated protein unfolding and degradation/protein disaggregation/ER complex assembly

[54]

LonA

Cytosol and mitochondria

E/B

Protein unfolding and degradation

[55]

Helix 2 insert

MCM

Cytosol and nucleus

E/A

DNA replication (helicase activity)

[56]

McrB/Unc-53

Cytosol and nucleus

E/A/B

DNA restriction/unknown

[57]

Midasin

Nucleus

E

Maturation and nuclear export of ribosomes

[58]

MoxR

Cytosol

A/B

Protein complex assembly

[59]

Chelatase

Cytosol and chloroplast

E/A/B

Metal insertion

[24]

σ54 Activator

Cytosol

B

Transcriptional activation

[60]

YifB

Cytosol

B

Unknown

[1]

ComM

Cytosol

B

Unknown

[61]

Other

Dynein heavy chain

Cytosol

E

Molecular transport and cilia/flagellar movement

[29]

LonB

Membrane

A

Protein unfolding and degradation

[55]

ExeA

Cytosol

B

Type II secretion

[62]

STAND

Varied

E/A/B

Varied

[63]


*A, B and E refer to archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes, respectively.

Snider et al. Genome Biology 2008 9:216   doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-4-216