Table 1

Human AID/APOBEC paralogs

Name

Genomic location

Exons

Deaminase domains

Expression

Cellular localization

Editing activity

Target

References


AID

12p13

5

1

Activated B cells, Testis

Mainly cytoplasmic, acts in the nucleus

DNA

Immunoglobulin gene

[3,31]

APOBEC1

12p13.1

5

1

Small intestine

Cytoplasmic/nuclear, acts in the nucleus

RNA, DNA

Apolipoprotein B mRNA

[1,2]

APOBEC2

6p21

3

1

Skeletal muscle, heart

Cytoplasmic/nuclear

Unknown

Unknown

[15,16]

APOBEC3A

22q13.1

5

1

Keratinocytes, blood

Cytoplasmic/nuclear

DNA

Adeno-associated virus, retrotransposons

[4,104]

APOBEC3B

22q13.1

8

2

Intestine, uterus, mammary gland, keratinocytes, other

Predominantly nuclear

DNA

Retroviruses, retrotransposons, HBV

[4,104]

APOBEC3C

22q13.1

4

1

Many tissues

Cytoplasmic/nuclear

DNA

Retroviruses, retrotransposons, HBV

[4]

APOBEC3DE

22q13.1

7

2

Thyroid, spleen, blood

Unknown

DNA

Retroviruses

[4,10,107]

APOBEC3F

22q13.1

8

2

Many tissues

Cytoplasmic

DNA

Retroviruses, retrotransposons, HBV

[4]

APOBEC3G

22q13.1

8

2

Many tissues, T cells

Cytoplasmic

DNA

Retroviruses, retrotransposons, HBV

[4,5]

APOBEC3H

22q13.1

5

1

Blood, thymus, thyroid, placenta

Unknown

DNA

Retroviruses

[10,107]

LOC196469*

12q23

1

2

Pseudogene

-

-

-

[10,107]

APOBEC4

1q25.3

2

1

Testis

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

[14]


*This pseudogene originated from a recent retrotranspositional event. HBV, hepatitis B virus.

Conticello Genome Biology 2008 9:229   doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-6-229