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Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Protein structure protection commits gene expression patterns

Jianping Chen1, Han Liang2 and Ariel Fernández134*

Author Affiliations

1 Program in Applied Physics, Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA

2 Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

3 Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA

4 Department of Computer Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

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Genome Biology 2008, 9:R107  doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-r107

Published: 7 July 2008

Abstract

Background

Gene co-expressions often determine module-defining spatial and temporal concurrences of proteins. Yet, little effort has been devoted to tracing coordinating signals for expression correlations to the three-dimensional structures of gene products.

Results

We performed a global structure-based analysis of the yeast and human proteomes and contrasted this information against their respective transcriptome organizations obtained from comprehensive microarray data. We show that protein vulnerability quantifies dosage sensitivity for metabolic adaptation phases and tissue-specific patterns of mRNA expression, determining the extent of co-expression similarity of binding partners. The role of protein intrinsic disorder in transcriptome organization is also delineated by interrelating vulnerability, disorder propensity and co-expression patterns. Extremely vulnerable human proteins are shown to be subject to severe post-transcriptional regulation of their expression through significant micro-RNA targeting, making mRNA levels poor surrogates for protein-expression levels. By contrast, in yeast the expression of extremely under-wrapped proteins is likely regulated through protein aggregation. Thus, the 85 most vulnerable proteins in yeast include the five confirmed prions, while in human, the genes encoding extremely vulnerable proteins are predicted to be targeted by microRNAs. Hence, in both vastly different organisms protein vulnerability emerges as a structure-encoded signal for post-transcriptional regulation.

Conclusion

Vulnerability of protein structure and the concurrent need to maintain structural integrity are shown to quantify dosage sensitivity, compelling gene expression patterns across tissue types and temporal adaptation phases in a quantifiable manner. Extremely vulnerable proteins impose additional constraints on gene expression: They are subject to high levels of regulation at the post-transcriptional level.