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Evolutionary rate and gene expression across different brain regions

Tamir Tuller12*, Martin Kupiec2 and Eytan Ruppin13*

Author Affiliations

1 School of Computer Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel

2 Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel

3 School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel

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Genome Biology 2008, 9:R142  doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-9-r142

Published: 23 September 2008

Abstract

Background

The evolutionary rate of a protein is a basic measure of evolution at the molecular level. Previous studies have shown that genes expressed in the brain have significantly lower evolutionary rates than those expressed in somatic tissues.

Results

We study the evolutionary rates of genes expressed in 21 different human brain regions. We find that genes highly expressed in the more recent cortical regions of the brain have lower evolutionary rates than genes highly expressed in subcortical regions. This may partially result from the observation that genes that are highly expressed in cortical regions tend to be highly expressed in subcortical regions, and thus their evolution faces a richer set of functional constraints. The frequency of mammal-specific and primate-specific genes is higher in the highly expressed gene sets of subcortical brain regions than in those of cortical brain regions. The basic inverse correlation between evolutionary rate and gene expression is significantly stronger in brain versus nonbrain tissues, and in cortical versus subcortical regions. Extending upon this cortical/subcortical trend, this inverse correlation is generally more marked for tissues that are located higher along the cranial vertical axis during development, giving rise to the possibility that these tissues are also more evolutionarily recent.

Conclusions

We find that cortically expressed genes are more conserved than subcortical ones, and that gene expression levels exert stronger constraints on sequence evolution in cortical versus subcortical regions. Taken together, these findings suggest that cortically expressed genes are under stronger selective pressure than subcortically expressed genes.