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Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

Lei-Ying Zheng1, Xiao-Sen Guo2, Bing He2, Lian-Jun Sun1, Yao Peng2, Shan-Shan Dong2, Teng-Fei Liu2, Shuye Jiang13, Srinivasan Ramachandran13, Chun-Ming Liu1 and Hai-Chun Jing1*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China

2 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Transomics Biotechnologies, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China

3 Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory Limited, 1 Research Link National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604

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Genome Biology 2011, 12:R114  doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-11-r114

Published: 21 November 2011

Abstract

Background

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide and intraspecific variation for dissecting the genetic basis of these important traits and for tailor-designed breeding of this important C4 crop.

Results

We resequenced two sweet and one grain sorghum inbred lines, and identified a set of nearly 1,500 genes differentiating sweet and grain sorghum. These genes fall into ten major metabolic pathways involved in sugar and starch metabolisms, lignin and coumarin biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses and DNA damage repair. In addition, we uncovered 1,057,018 SNPs, 99,948 indels of 1 to 10 bp in length and 16,487 presence/absence variations as well as 17,111 copy number variations. The majority of the large-effect SNPs, indels and presence/absence variations resided in the genes containing leucine rich repeats, PPR repeats and disease resistance R genes possessing diverse biological functions or under diversifying selection, but were absent in genes that are essential for life.

Conclusions

This is a first report of the identification of genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sorghum. High-density SNP and indel markers reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and the molecular breeding of this important crop and related species.