Genetic and other evidence for human origins within Africa. Left panel: Y-chromosomal branches are those analyzed by Cruciani et al. ; also shown is a simplified version of the mitochondrial DNA tree . In each case, 'Out of Africa' branches are in pale blue. Autosomal evidence is from Tishkoff et al.  and Henn et al. . Right panel: approximate locations are shown for the earliest non-genetic evidence of modern humans within Africa (see text for references).
Batini and Jobling Genome Biology 2011 12:118 doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-118