Figure 3.

Stable isotope flux analysis of PPARδ agonist-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (a) Graphs showing the M+1/M isotope ratio 13C enrichment of lactate, glutamate and succinate analyzed by GC-MS of the aqueous fraction and M+1/M isotope ratio 13C enrichment of palmitic acid analyzed by GC-MS of the organic fraction from control (n = 6) and PPARδ agonist-treated (n = 6) 3T3-L1 cells incubated with 1-13C glucose. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. The metabolites have been mapped to the glycolysis and TCA cycle metabolic pathways. Red indicates a metabolite increased in 13C enrichment by PPARδ activation. (b) Graphs showing the M+1/M isotope ratio 13C enrichment of malate, glutamate, fumarate and succinate analyzed by GC-MS of the aqueous fraction and enrichment of arachidic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, myristic acid and lauric acid analyzed by GC-MS of the organic fraction from control (n = 6) and PPARδ agonist-treated (n = 6) 3T3-L1 cells incubated with U-13C palmitate. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01,***P < 0.005. Red indicates a metabolite increased, and blue indicates a metabolite decreased in 13C enrichment by PPARδ activation. Parent ions were used to calculate ion ratio. Error bars represent standard errors of the mean.

Roberts et al. Genome Biology 2011 12:R75   doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-8-r75
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