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Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Human genes with CpG island promoters have a distinct transcription-associated chromatin organization

Tanya Vavouri1 and Ben Lehner2

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), Badalona, Barcelona 08916, Spain

2 EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Unit and ICREA, Centre for Genomic Regulation and UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain

Genome Biology 2012, 13:R110  doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-11-r110

Published: 27 November 2012

Abstract

Background

More than 50% of human genes initiate transcription from CpG dinucleotide-rich regions referred to as CpG islands. These genes show differences in their patterns of transcription initiation, and have been reported to have higher levels of some activation-associated chromatin modifications.

Results

Here we report that genes with CpG island promoters have a characteristic transcription-associated chromatin organization. This signature includes high levels of the transcription elongation-associated histone modifications H4K20me1, H2BK5me1 and H3K79me1/2/3 in the 5' end of the gene, depletion of the activation marks H2AK5ac, H3K14ac and H3K23ac immediately downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), and characteristic epigenetic asymmetries around the TSS. The chromosome organization factor CTCF may be bound upstream of RNA polymerase in most active CpG island promoters, and an unstable nucleosome at the TSS may be specifically marked by H4K20me3, the first example of such a modification. H3K36 monomethylation is only detected as enriched in the bodies of active genes that have CpG island promoters. Finally, as expression levels increase, peak modification levels of the histone methylations H3K9me1, H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K27me1 shift further away from the TSS into the gene body.

Conclusions

These results suggest that active genes with CpG island promoters have a distinct step-like series of modified nucleosomes after the TSS. The identity, positioning, shape and relative ordering of transcription-associated histone modifications differ between genes with and without CpG island promoters. This supports a model where chromatin organization reflects not only transcription activity but also the type of promoter in which transcription initiates.