Table 2

Orthologous candidate genes associated with human alcohol phenotypes, and their differential expression in three model organisms

Human

Fly

Mouse

Rat


Protein (gene symbol)

Phenotype and reference(s)

Gene functiona

Gene symbol

Phenotype and reference(s)

Gene symbol

Phenotype and reference(s)

Gene symbol

Phenotype and reference(s)


Adducin 1 (ADD1)

Alcohol dependence [40]

Membrane-cytoskeleton-associated protein that promotes the assembly of the spectrin-actin network

hts

Ethanol knockdown [94]

Add1

Alcohol consumption [96]

Add1

Alcohol consumption [97]

Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3)

Alcohol dependence [25,31]

Mediates odorant detection via modulation of intracellular cAMP concentration

Ac3

Ethanol knockdown [98]

Adcy3

Alcohol consumption [96]

Adcy3

Alcohol consumption [66]

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 (ALDH1A1)

Alcohol consumption [99]

Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family; binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal

CG31075

Ethanol knockdown [60,93]

Aldh1a1

Alcohol consumption [100]

Aldh1a1

Alcohol consumption [97]

ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1 (ABCB1)

Alcohol dependence [25]

Member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters; energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells

Mdr50

Ethanol knockdown [93]

Abcb1b

Alcohol consumption [96]

Abcb1a

Alcohol consumption [66]

Crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB)

Alcohol dependence [41]

Member of the small heat-shock protein family; may contribute to the transparency and refractive index of the lens; expressed widely in many tissues and organs

l(2)efl

Ethanol knockdown [60,93,94]

Cryab

Alcohol consumption [96,101]

Cryab

Alcohol consumption [67]

Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1 (DSCAML1)

Alcohol dependence [25]

Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance

CG42256

Ethanol knockdown [93]

Dscaml1

Alcohol consumption [96]

Dscam

Alcohol consumption [66]

Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1)

Alcohol consumption [65]

The protein is one of several forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, identified as a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes; catalyzes the production of GABA

Gad1

Ethanol knockdown [93]

Gad1

Alcohol consumption [96,101]

Gad1

Alcohol consumption [66,97]

Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3)

Alcohol dependence [40]

A protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that interacts with lectin chaperones calreticulin and calnexin to modulate folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins

ERp60

Ethanol knockdown [93]

Pdia3

Acute ethanol injections [102]

Pdia3

Alcohol consumption [97]

Protein kinase C, alpha (PRKCA)

Alcohol dependence [25,31]

The protein is a calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent, serine- and threonine-specific enzyme; plays a role in many different cellular processes

inaC

Ethanol knockdown [92,93]

Prkca

Alcohol consumption [96]

Prkca

Alcohol consumption [66]

Solute carrier family 2, member 14 (SLC2A14)

Alcohol dependence [25]

Member of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family that facilitates glucose transport

Glut1

Ethanol knockdown [93]

Slc2a3

Alcohol consumption [101]

Slc2a3

Alcohol consumption [66]

Tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3)

Alcohol dependence [22]

Belongs to a family of proteins that function as receptors for tachykinins; associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system

Takr99D

Ethanol knockdown [93]

Tacr3

Alcohol consumption [96]

Tacr3

Alcohol consumption [66]


aObtained from GeneCards® [103].

GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid.

Morozova et al. Genome Biology 2012 13:239   doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-2-239