The 'scissors' pattern of gender distribution within career stages in biological sciences at German universities. The figure shows the percentage of male and female university students through graduation, PhDs awarded, scientific staff (includes post-doctoral fellows, some junior group leaders, and research scientists with university or PhD degrees), Habilitation (awarded for research accomplishments following the PhD as well as teaching experience, which is often a pre-requisite for university professorships in Germany), and professors . A similar pattern has been found in other countries, for example, Australia . For further information on gender equality in science in the EU, see .
Biology Genome Biology 2012 13:148 doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-3-148