Cell-cycle regulated transcription associates with DNA replication timing in yeast and human
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Genome Biology 2013, 14:R111 doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-10-r111Published: 7 October 2013
Eukaryotic DNA replication follows a specific temporal program, with some genomic regions consistently replicating earlier than others, yet what determines this program is largely unknown. Highly transcribed regions have been observed to replicate in early S-phase in all plant and animal species studied to date, but this relationship is thought to be absent from both budding yeast and fission yeast. No association between cell-cycle regulated transcription and replication timing has been reported for any species.
Here I show that in budding yeast, fission yeast, and human, the genes most highly transcribed during S-phase replicate early, whereas those repressed in S-phase replicate late. Transcription during other cell-cycle phases shows either the opposite correlation with replication timing, or no relation. The relationship is strongest near late-firing origins of replication, which is not consistent with a previously proposed model—that replication timing may affect transcription—and instead suggests a potential mechanism involving the recruitment of limiting replication initiation factors during S-phase.
These results suggest that S-phase transcription may be an important determinant of DNA replication timing across eukaryotes, which may explain the well-established association between transcription and replication timing.